In recent years, Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developing rapidly both in theory and in application.GIS has been applied in many fields of modeling and decision support, such as urban management, regionalization, environmental renovation and so on. Geographic information has become an important part of the information age.The concept of “digital earth“ has further promoted the development of GIS as its technical support.At the same time, some scholars are devoted to the related theoretical research, such as spatial perception, spatial data errors, the formalization of spatial relations and so on. This just illustrates that Geographic Information System (GIS) is an applied technology and discipline, and these two aspects constitute a mutually reinforcing development process. From the point of view of application, the development of GIS in recent years is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
The expansion of application areas, such as some commercial departments began to use GIS for customer research; in addition, the combination of remote sensing and GPS has opened up a wider application space for GIS, such as vehicle navigation, environmental monitoring and so on.
A large number of mature commercial GIS platforms have emerged, or existing software is constantly introducing new products.
More and more attention has been paid to the construction of spatial data. Based on the construction of spatial data infrastructure, the research on spatial data sharing and interoperability has begun.
In the second part, according to the process of input, management, analysis and representation of spatial data, the basic functions of GIS are described.